Russia's insistence on paying for Russian gas in rubles has rattled European countries: Greece held an emergency meeting of suppliers, the Dutch government would urge consumers to use less gas, and the French energy regulator told consumers not to panic. Russian gas meets one-third of Europe's annual energy needs.
Russia said they could expand their demand for ruble payments for other commodities, including oil, grain, fertilizer, coal, and metals, which raised the risk of recession in Europe and the US.
Moscow is expected to unveil its ruble payment plan on April 1, but it said it would not immediately ask buyers to pay for gas in rubles.
Western countries have said paying in rubles would be a breach of contract, and renegotiation could take months or longer. This uncertainty has pushed commodity market prices higher.
The supply and prices of other commodities like the 316L Stainless Steel could also be affected.
Additive manufacturing (AM) of metal parts
Additive manufacturing (AM) of metal parts can be achieved using a variety of different process technologies, which use powder, wire or sheet as raw materials. The additive manufacturing process using metal powder as raw material is Selective Laser Melting (SLM), Electron Beam Melting (EBM) and Binder Jet Printing (BJP). These are called powder bed processes. SLM and EBM technologies use laser beams and electron beams to melt powder, respectively. The microstructure and mechanical properties of different alloy parts manufactured using these two technologies are the most widely reported in the research. On the contrary, there is relatively little exploration of the BJP process. The structure-performance correlation of metal parts produced by this process has not yet received widespread attention.
The main advantage of the BJP process is that it can (compared to other powder bed processes) produce parts at a relatively low cost and at a faster speed. The important thing is that it is applicable to any kind of alloy, and additive manufacturing using SLM/EBM technology can only be performed on a few alloys. The porosity level in BJP alloys is often very high, which may have a profound impact on its performance. A researcher studied the microstructure, porosity and its effect on tensile and high cycle fatigue (HCF) behavior of 316L austenitic stainless steel with different manufacturing processes.
In general, BJP and CM 316L stainless steels have strong work hardening ability, which gives them great ductility. SLM alloy has a high yield strength, but dislocations cross slip at the beginning of plastic deformation, which shortens the work hardening process and affects ductility. The results of this research can guide the design of additive manufacturing alloys: the higher porosity of BJP does not adversely affect the high-cycle fatigue performance, but it reduces the yield strength. Therefore, reducing the porosity can basically increase the yield strength of BJP parts, making it the same as that of CM alloy. For SLM specimens, it is obvious that insufficient fusion pores should be reduced to a minimum (if not completely eliminated) to reduce overall porosity and increase fatigue strength.
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Russia is a major supplier of industrial metals such as nickel, aluminium and palladium. Russia and Ukraine are both major wheat exporters, and Russia and Belarus produce large amounts of potash, an input to fertiliser. The price and market of the 316L Stainless Steel will fluctuate under its influence. Prices of these goods have been rising since 2022 and are now likely to rise further because of the Russia-Ukraine conflict. Russia is a major supplier of industrial metals such as nickel, aluminium and palladium. Russia and Ukraine are both major wheat exporters, and Russia and Belarus produce large amounts of potash, an input to fertiliser. The price and market of the 316L Stainless Steel will fluctuate under its influence. Prices of these goods have been rising since 2022 and are now likely to rise further because of the Russia-Ukraine conflict.
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